A widespread scale up of existing low-cost and effective tools to prevent and treat diarrhoea could substantially reduce diarrhoeal deaths and could be a major step towards achieving the Millenium Development Goal 4 of reducing child mortality by 2015, according to research published in PLoS Medicine.
Depressingly, in this modern era, diarrhoea—three or more loose bowel movements a day—is still a common cause of death in developing countries and is the 2nd biggest killer of young children (under 5 years) worldwide. Poor hygiene, inadequate sanitation and lack of clean, safe drinking water all contribute to the spread of the harmful viruses, bacteria and parasites that cause diarrhoea. Now, Fischer Walker and colleagues use their Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the potential lives saved after implementing two different scale-up scenarios for key diarrhoeal prevention (breastfeeding, vitamin A supplements, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and rotavirus vaccination) and treatment (oral rehydration salts, zinc supplementation, and antibiotics for dysentery) intervention strategies in 68 countries with high childhood mortality.
The researchers put forward two scenarios for the priority countries, which included Bangladesh, China and Haiti, for a 5-year period (between 2010 and 2015)—the “ambitious” (which assumed feasible improvement in all interventions) and the “universal” (which assumed near 100% coverage for all interventions). By 2015, diarrhoeal deaths could be reduced by 78% and 92% in the ambitious and universal scenarios, respectively. With the universal scenario, nearly 5 million deaths could be averted at an additional costs of US$0.80 per capita using some of the key diarrhoea prevention and treatment interventions (such as rotavirus vaccination and oral rehydration salts) and $3.24 per capita when all sanitation and water interventions (such as handwashing, improved sanitation and access to safe, clean water) implemented.
Fischer Walker and co-workers argue that “real progress” could be made in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal diseases if intervention strategies are made an international priority and the global health community works together to eliminate this harmful disease. Furthermore, the research acts as a pertinent reminder that we already have the technologies and interventions needed to prevent and reduce the devastating effects of diarrhoea, we just need to use them in the right scenario.
Walker, C., Friberg, I., Binkin, N., Young, M., Walker, N., Fontaine, O., Weissman, E., Gupta, A., & Black, R. (2011). Scaling Up Diarrhea Prevention and Treatment Interventions: A Lives Saved Tool Analysis PLoS Medicine, 8 (3) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000428